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Back To The Roots: Why African Civilization Is Unnecessary

Going Back To The Roots: Why I Think African Civilization Is Unnecessary (Part 2) by Oma Nchenge
Africa has the longest and oldest economic history, from our way of life, agriculture, dressing, actions, and respect for religions among other factors. The African culture is diverse, cutting across regions and countries.

One day in our history, colonialism came up, colonialism which is the imposition of foreign rule over indigenous traditional political setting and foreign dominance and subjugation of African people in all spheres of their social, political, cultural, economic and religious civilization.

Africa is a blessed continent, enriched with things that are necessary for us to function as humans. Africa in it's original form is a whole package; ranging from its agricultural provisions, livestock's, appropriate weather conditions, mineral resources, and what have you.

Africa has its own cultures, traditions, rules, and customs that dictates the way people live. The coming of the White men rendered everything empty. They came to impose their civilisation on us terming us "barbaric." African civilisation is of course unnecessary. We are civilised in our way, and we are comfortable. We had everything a continent could have. It is unnecessary, we don't need it. We never needed it. Their intention to colonise us was disguised under showing us a new faith. We were pleased with our gods; Ani- our beloved mother earth, Amadioha- god of thunder, Ogun- god of iron, amidst others. We were happy. We were doing well, and well enough.

Our occupations were hereditary. We knew them so well, and we did well with them. There were no big big sickness caused from inhaling gas, and other harmful chemicals. We either go to the farm for agriculture, forest for hunting animals, or river to fish. We had other interesting works like tie and dye, pottery making, hair dressing. The works were less stressful, and they pay well; compared to what civilisation is giving us today.

Western civilisation and culture began to creep into African socio-cultural milieu, first, with the contact of Europeans with Africa, a consequence of Berlin conference in the quest for imperial pilfering of African resources and, later, consolidated by the unstoppable wave of globalisation. It is important to stress that colonialism distorted and retarded the pace and tempo of cultural growth and trend of civilisation in Africa.

One of the most profound consequences of colonization has been how the political and economic rape of the colonies has also led to what sometimes seem to be an unbridgeable cultural gap between the nations that were the beneficiaries of colonization and those that were the victims of the colonial assault. The era of colonial pillage and plunder led to the relative stagnation and often precipitous decline of traditional cultural pursuits in the colonies.

With Africa subjugated and dominated, the Western culture and European mode of civilisation began to thrive and outgrow African cultural heritage. Traditional African cultural practices paved the way for foreign way of doing things as Africans became fully ‘westernised’. Western culture now is regarded as frontline civilisation. African ways of doing things became primitive, archaic and regrettably unacceptable in public domain. Not only were certain aspects of the material culture in the colonies lost or destroyed, colonial societies also lost the power and sense of cultural continuity, such that it became practically impossible to recover the ability to strive for cultural progress on their own terms.

Civilization has done a lot more damage to our African culture, so there is need for the flogging of the negative impact of Western civilisation and culture on Africa in all fora; so that policy makers can begin to see the need to reappraise their policies that contribute to the cultural dearth of Africa or the ones that negate the principles of cultural revival. We need to have a holistic appraisal of culture and Western Civilisation to the extent of distortions and retardation it caused to Africa and its pace of development, and also, by the same measure, illuminate into the options that are left for Africa.  

How to Win an African Man's Heart


How to Win an African Man's Heart by Oluwatosin Wusu

African men are egoistic and yes, you read that right. Being African makes you a product of Africa, heroic, strong, versatile, energetic, resilient and egoistic. So, it's not enough for you to say "you are beautiful". You need more than being beautiful to win that heart of a "strong" mind. 

Truly, men are moved by what they see, but as we all know, it's pertinent that you not only view the container, but you also need to access the content to know if it's worth appreciating and earned. 

How do you win the heart of an egoistic man, an African man? Be Cultured - Culture is one of the most true nature of a man. He does not shy away from it and can easily identify with anyone who respect his culture. Everyman, African men especially, wants a woman who holds "cultural heritage" in high esteem. So, if you want a man to open his heart up to you, be Cultured, promote your culture, live a morally cultured life and cherish your culture, so that he will know that his children would not be among those who deny their source and background. 

Respect - This is a two-way thing; it is given and it is earned. Absolutely, no man wants a woman who is disrespectful, regardless of age, position and status. Being African, makes it easy for men to know that respect is one of the things that makes a  person cultured. A friend once told me: he says, "a rude lady is a nude lady" because she has lot all that there is to her; she is seen as crude and shameless. Being respectful does not mean you look while your self esteem is trampled on, respect means having to say "No" in a polite manner. These days, lots of marriage has turned sour owing to the fact the man felt disrespected or not man enough to man his home.  In an African home, culture is valued and respect is lived out! In the days of old, women do not disrespectful men or regard them as inconsequential, in fact, our mothers then are so humble so that even when the man is engrossed with anger, they calm his nerves and soothe his soul with calming words, despite times that the man may be the one at fault, the woman will speak with humility, yet firm. Respect to his parents too is crucial, a man will totally love any woman that respects his parent, friends and his decisions. In our culture as Africans, we have seen and know how our parents respect themselves in words and actions, ill-manner is not condoled. The first example for every man is his mother - a perfect example of who/what he wants to be with/settle for; a respectable, well-cultured, courageous, hardworking and properly nurtured lady. 

Read: 5 Native African Foods You Should Try Out Today

Furthermore, having a good dress sense can not be overemphasized. These days, so many things are happening that has made people question what makes a lady cultured and respected? Of course, we see men give pleasurable comment to the nudity of ladies on various platforms of social media, but the truth remains that an African man knows better than to wife a woman who has totally lost her sense of modesty. Imagine him having to introduce you to his circle of friends and then they see this "loose" attitude in you. A popular saying goes thus; a lady is addressed how she is dressed, so whoever walks up to approach you have done that on the manner with which you presented yourself. 

Men want a lady that commands respect, a woman confident in her dressing and attitude; a sociable, classy and sophisticated woman. African men do not appreciate ladies who go about half-naked, in fact, they honour lady who wear more covered clothes and respect them. That is a kind of woman he wants to show to his parents, friends and the world. Naturally, a mother's intuition does not lie and that is why she can tell on the kind of lady her son is about to wife on her first visit to see his parent. 

Then, there is honour, culture never dies. African men would do anything for honour. They are a big fan of dignity and integrity. No man wants get involved with a woman who does not honour her parent, one who does not honour her parent will not honour another. So, a man carefully survey and weigh his chances with any woman he comes across but he knows when to keep at bay when the said woman has shown to be one who does not value her family. Honouring his parent as you would your parent will soften his heart towards you, any man who give his all to see his woman practically worship his parent and give them due regards. Without leaving out Love, this is the one thing that supersedes all. Truly, mothers get defensive when their son brings a woman home, particularly, African mothers and this is because they believe that the love, care, affection and attention given to them will be directed somewhere else. But, it is not always true and that is why it is important that you love his mother especially, so that she can be rest assured that you have come to further show her more love, rather than take away her love. Love, overcomes all - worries; fears; assumptions...

Winning the heart of an African man is but an easy one, it only has to be done with pure and true intentions. A woman with the above qualities need not worry anymore because no better way to gain an African man's heart except these. What you don't have, you can not give. So, you need to have these and it has to become a part of you before you give it - Culture, Respect, Modesty in dressing, Honour and love these are the top list of how to win a man's heart.


In case you missed the first part of this series by Oluwatosin Wusu, you can catch up here Flowing from the conversation in Oluwatosins article, you can rightly assume that an African man is known to be bold, strong and handsome 😉Here are some tips to win an African man's heart 💃

1. Respect Them

African men love RESPECT. It is an important virtue in a relationship. It is the foundation of any relationship. To love a man means to respect him. Now how do you respect an African man? Apologize when you are wrong "Babe I am sorry no go kill you trust me". Be careful of how you communicate with him especially in public. You want your friends and family to respect him so you have to show them you respect your man and they should too.

2. Don't Try to Control Them. 

Naturally, the male gender likes to be in control of situations even if not all the time some of the time. If you are the type that likes things done in your way, then you might need to make some adjustment 😌 African men do not want a woman who dictates what his action should be, what he should do or not do

3. Give them Compliments

In as much as we know African men to be tough and hardly show their feelings. I am here to tell you they love and appreciate COMPLIMENTS ❤️ tell him sweet words. Don't be boring call him sweet names. Tell him he is the apple of your eyes, love of your life. Let him know you are proud of him. Let him know how grateful you are to God to have met him... You wanna tell him he is so smart and sweet awwwn 😋😍 Buy your man gifts. Send him money .. Be sexy for him. Appreciate your man. You wanna wake up in the morning and tell him thank you for everything baby... You mean so much to me

4. Give them Good Food

Now let's talk about FOOD. The saying "the way to a man's heart is through his stomach" is true. Your cooking skills have to be top notch. You need to know his favorite meal and how to cook it. You need to know if he is the cold food type or the hot food type. You should also note that no mother would want her son to marry a lady who is lacking cooking skills hence the Yoruba saying "olobe lo l'oko" (The one that can cook is the one that that owns the husband). If you'r looking for delicious African meals to try out, you can read our article here on various native African foods you should try out today

5. Win His Family

To successfully win a man's heart you need to win his family's love. Be close to his family, get to know his mother and his siblings. Buy gifts for them when visiting and make sure his mother starts calling you "our wife". 

6. Be Industrious

African men appreciate industrious women. This means that if you can be productive, the average African man will admire you because they love hardworking women. African men also believe that an industrious woman can be independent and as well provide adequate support for him.

7. Be Prayerful

Lastly who doesn't love a PRAYERFUL WOMAN. To win his heart you must love your man to go on your knees and pray for him. Pray for his career. Pray for his family. Commit him to God

       Go win that special man's heart today.

Love & Peace ✌


The image used in this article was sourced from Pexels


The Culture of Respect, Language, and Greetings in Yoruba Land

Yoruba is a language spoken in West Africa, primarily in Southwestern Nigeria. In the Yoruba tradition, respect, language, and greetings are of great value to the indigenous people.

Respect is an important tradition of the Yoruba, it is a symbol of peace and orderliness. It is a mannerism that the elders do not joke with. Language is also a way of showing respect. Honorific language is used amongst the Yoruba. It is a tradition to accord respect to the older ones, you do not use the pronoun "you", instead, when referring to an older person, Yoruba uses the alphabet 'e' as in the phonetic sound of the first letter in egg and the alphabet "o" in open is used amongst peers. Irrespective of your age, you will be accorded your respect.

Greetings are also one of the traditions, it is one of the values that young people imbibe while growing up. Males prostrate with their full chest touching the ground, while females go down on both knees touching the ground. If you are caught bowing instead of observing this appropriate greeting, you will be termed as being disrespectful. The older one might tell you that "obaje" you are a spoilt brat, or if such people are close to the older ones, he or she might receive"ìgbajú"- slap, or "ìkó"- knock on the head.

Read: 5 Native African Foods You Should Try Out Today

Also, greetings in Yoruba vary, depends on what occasion or time. Good morning is " ekaaro", good afternoon "ekasan", good evening "eku irole or ekale", good night " odaaro", well-done"eku ise", welcome "ekaabo", sorry e pele" and so on. The language being used is very important.

Another aspect of being respectful is offering a seat to the older ones. When the younger one is found seated and there is no vacant space for the older person, the younger one has to stand for such person to seat.

It is noteworthy that offering a visitor water is also one of their traditions. Whenever anyone visits, the first thing they do is to offer the visitor "omi tutu"- chilled water. It is a symbol of care.
One can see how significant these values are in Yoruba land.

Sights and Sounds - The Origin and Historical Review of Ekiti State, Nigeria

The place you know today as Ekiti got its name from its immediate environment. Formerly known as Ile Olokiti (a yoruba phrase that means the land of hills), the city was discovered by some of the sons of Olofin, who were direct grand-children to Oduduwa, the father and ancestor of the Yoruba race. Olofin and his sixteen sons left Ile-Ife, the motherland of Yoruba land, in search of new lands to develop. In the course of their journey, they stopped over at a site called Igbo-Aka (the forest of termites) as they journeyed through Iwo Eleru (Caves of ashes) near Akure.
The journey continued and two of his sons; Owa Obokun and Orangun of Ila decided to remain and develop the present Ijesha and Igbomina land of Osun state. Olofin and the remaining fourteen sons continued with the journey and got to a land with many hills which they named Ile Olokiti, the present Ekiti state and settled there.
Being the largest ethnic group of the Yorubaland, the culturally homogenous state has diverse communities in which slight differences are noticeable in the Ekiti dialect of the Yoruba language they all speak. The homogenic nature of this state contribute to it its uniqueness featured in its various dialects of the same Yoruba language, for instance, the people of Ikere community speak a different dialect from those of the Ikole community, although it is of the same Yoruba language. The dialects of some of the communities in Ekiti state are influenced by their locations, for instance, Moba land speaks a dialect closer to that spoken by the Igbominas in Kwara state.
       HISTORY: With a historical background dated to the time of Olofin and his sixteen sons who found and developed Ile-Olokiti, the present Ekiti state was created on the 1st of October, in the year 1996. During the precolonial era, Ekiti state was ruled by Oyo and Benin empires. The Ekiti state formed a confederation which participated in a Kiriji war along with the Eastern Yoruba group against the Western Yoruba group and Ibadan kingdom which lasted for sixteen years; from 1877 to 1893. The war ended in a British-mediated stalemate. When Nigeria got her independence in 1960, the present Ekiti state became a part of the Western region until 1967. The Western region, in 1967 was splitted and became a part of the Western state which was also splitted in the year 1976.
      The East of the splitted western state became Ondo state. The present Ekiti state was broken off from the then Ekiti zone (Ondo state North-west) twenty years later.

      The population of the present Ekiti state is made up of the Ekiti people majorly and the Akoko Yoruba subgroup to a minor extent.

The History and Origin of Delta State

There is something incredibly fresh about history. Each time, it feels like taking a stroll down the memory of your ancestors to find the origin of a thing. This same feeling is aroused in this beautiful history of the Old Bendel State.

Bendel State was formed from the ancient Benin and Delta State provinces of Western Region-Delta to project the integration of Delta and Benin provinces. That old Bender State became the new Niger Delta on August 27, 1991. During the pre-colonial era, as it is with many African countries, as at the period of its former state, it was divided into two various monarchial states like the Kingdom of Agbor and Warri, before it turned out to be part of the British Oil Rivers Protectorate in 1884. There was also such colonial control in the present Niger Delta state as at 1910 because of the uprisings of the Ekumeku movement. The colonial forces did not gain such permanent control of the new Delta state until that movement. Due to that, after its independence, it became part of the Mid-Western region.

The Delta state is the 23rd most largest in area and the twelfth most populous, of the 36 states with an approximated population of over 5.6 million as of 2016. For years now, the population includes diverse ethnic groups like the Ukwani in the East; the Ika, Ozanogogo, and Olukumi in the NorthEast; the Isoko and Eruwa in the centre of the state; the Ijaw, Itsekiri, Uvwie, and Urhobo in the SouthEast; and the Anioma in the NorthWest. It is a state named after the Niger Delta, which is a large part of the current Delta state in the South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. It is bordered on the four cardinal points by five states; on the South by Bayelsa state, on the North by Edo state, the east by Anambra and Rivers state, and the West by the Night of Benin, which is about 160km of the state's coastline. 

Political Administration in Delta State

The state now has 25 Local Government Areas, much more than the initial number which was 12 as at 1991, when the state was formed. The 25 Local Government Areas are: Aniocha North, Aniocha South, Burutu, Bomadi, Ethiope East, Ethiope West, Ika South, Ika North, Isoko North, Isoko South, Ndokwa East, Ndokwa West, Oshimili North, Oshimili South, Okpo, Patani, Sapele, Udu, Ugheli North, Ugheli South, Ikwani, Uvwie West, Uvwie North, Uvwie South, and Uvwie Southwest. The capital of Delta is Asaba and it is located  along the River Niger on the Northeastern end of the state, while the state's economic center is Warri on the Southwestern coastline.

Geographically, the state's landmass is about 15,050km square (66,97089 mi), of which the land occupies more space, and estimated to be more than 60%. Lying approximately between 5°00' and 6°45' East and 5°OO' and 6°30' North, Delta is located in Nigeria's Midwest which is bounded in the north and west by Edo state. It is divided between the central African mangroves in the coastal southwest and the Nigerian low land forest, it contains the Forcados River, which flow along the State's Eastern and Southern borders, and the River Niger and it's distributary. Much of what makes up the Niger Delta is the Escravos River which runs through Warri and the coastal areas which are riddled with dozens of smaller Niger distributaries. It also has a wide coastal belt interlace with rivulets steams, which form the part of Niger River Delta, and it is lying low without any memorial hills. In addition to it's geographical features, the State's nature contain threatening animals like Dwarf crocodiles, Grey parrot, African fish eagle, Mona monkey,  African threadfin, crabs, Blue mussel, along with various Cetacean species, and African manatee.  

Economically, Delta state is known for its large and substantial production of crude oil and natural gas, that in Nigeria, it has the 4th highest Human Development Index, although disputes between oil companies and local communities along with years of systemic corruption have resulted into harshness that are often tied to the lack of development in host communities. It is the sales of petroleum products that drives it's economy. The state also involve in agriculture, as it involves itself in the farming of yam, cassava, and oil palm crops, in addition to fishing and heliciculture. Delta state also have different industries like the brick making, ceramics, glass and bottle manufacturing, chemicals or insulators production, bottle manufacturing, decorative stone cutting, quarrying, sanitary waves, and chalk manufacturing industries, which are produced from the state's raw materials which are the solid minerals deposits within the state. They are: the industrial clay, limestone, silica, lignite, tar sand, decorative rocks, and kaolin among others, although most of these solid minerals are under-utilised for their processes.

Politically, the state has 3 senatorial districts, the North, South, and Central, and the governor and chief of Delta state is Governor Arthur Okowa Ifeanyi, since April 2015 till date; a People's Democratic Party candidate, while his deputy is Deputy Governor Kingsley Otuaro, and also a People's Democratic Party candidate.


Delta State is located in Nigeria's South-South geopolitical zone. The state was founded on during general Ibrahim Babaginda's regime, the general recognized Delta as a state and chose Asaba as its capital. Delta is named after the Niger Delta, which covers a substantial portion of the state . Delta is the 23rd biggest state by size and the twelfth most populated. The state is divided geographically between Central African mangroves in the coastal southwest and Nigerian lowland woods in the majority of the remainder of the state, with a minor piece of the Niger Delta swamp forests in the extreme south. Before becoming a part of the British Oil Rivers Protectorate in 1884, the territory that is now Delta State was separated into many monarchial nations, including the Kingdom of Warri and the Agbor Kingdom. The protectorate (now renamed the Niger Coast Protectorate) was included into the Southern Nigeria Protectorate in the early 1900s, which ultimately merged into British Nigeria. The name "Delta" comes from the point where the Niger River meets the sea. Due to ethnic instability prompted by the changing of the title of Olu of Itsekiri to Olu of Warri in 1952, this name was changed from the former Warri province. To appease the province's non-Itsekiri residents, the name Delta Province was established, which subsequently evolved into Delta State.

Urhobo, Itesekiri, Ijaw (Izon), Isoko, and Anioma (Igbo) are the most populous ethnic groups in Delta State. The state is made up of the Enuani, Ukwani, Ndokwa, and Ika ethnic groups, together known as Anioma, and the Delta people, who are made up of the Urhobo, Itsekiri, Ijaw, and Isoko ethnic groups. Their attire, language, festivals, music, and culture all reflect ancestral and traditional administration institutions.  The people are kind, knowledgeable, resourceful, and hardworking. They are very welcoming due to the fact that they all come from different tribes.


Delta state is Known for its mineral resources, mostly crude oil. The Agricultural sector was once the nation's source of income before crude oil was discovered in Niger Delta in 1956 since then nigeria has focused its energy on the development of oils wells, transporting of crude oil and the refining of the crude oil. Yes, Delta also offers varous other mineral resources such as kaolin, Natural gas, marble, graphite and the likes, it is mostly recognized in history for its role in the history of how crude oil was discovered in nigeria.


Delta state has many historical sociopolitical, and cultural sights that are tourists' attractions worthy. Some of them are: 'The Nana's Palace' which was built by a powerful 19th century indigenous entrepreneurer who traded with the British, before the relationship eventually turned sour, and was exiled to Ghana. The personal things he left are housed in this grand palace. He is called Chief Nana Olomu, the Lander Brothers Anchorage located in Asaba, which was built in memory of early British explorers. It has a graveyard, a museum, and many writings and artworks. It houses many visible memories like the replica of one of the boats that was used by the brothers; the Falcop Mangrove Park; the Araya Bible Site, which houses a copy of the Holy Bible. Many people believe that the bible descended to this spot in a very miraculous way around August 1914; the Demas Nwoko Edifice, which was built with traditional materials, designs and construction techniques of the Igbo civilisation by Demes Nwoko, who was an architect, artist, and the builder of international repute from Idumeje to Ugboko in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State; and the Warri Kingdom Royal Cemetery, which is 512 years old and functions as a resting abode of past rulers of the kingdom. A tree is planted on each grave.

Welcome to The Big Heart State✌

Evolution of Money in Africa


The evolution of African currencies began as Africans gradually emerge a community in their respective territories. As the need for the exchange of goods or services arises. for instance; a seamstress with clothes who exchange his clothes for a farmer's livestock as a meat; a laborer who renders his labor for a quota of wealth. A good example was how Chinua Achebe rightly sighted in his epic novel: Things Fall Apart, where Okonkwo, the protagonist, had to plants another man's yam seeds to in order to earn for himself more enough seeds to establish his wealth through planting yam seed from a friend and receive a good return at the time of harvest. However, as African began to established contact with themselves  and other continent( intercontinental trade), there is a pressing needs for Africans to go beyond exchange commodities to a well recognized and established currencies that can be generally accepted with ranked value. and not like the pre-colonial minted coins derived from copper and metals, perforated in between for easy counting and without recognized value. Hence, in discussing these we are going through the four(4) stages of Africa currencies as classified by Jane. I. and Karin Pallaver in their work " Money and currency in Africa history", which include : the precolonial era, .colonial era, the post colonial era, and the current 21st century stage.

 The definition of  Money can be derived from the four major functions of money such as: a medium of exchange, a store of wealth, a unit of account and a means of payment. That is for anything to be define as money, it must be exchangeable with other product or services, and can also  be owned as an assets and at same time used as a form of payment of taxes, bride price, bills, etc. The Africa currencies has underwent these series of status through its different stages from its primitive form(the pre colonial stage) which is precedes after by the colonial, and the colonial is followed by the post colonial following  later is the 21st century currencies status, which is accompanied with a continuous growth in  both is shapes and values of the African currencies.

 The first stage is type of evolution the African currencies experiences is the pre-colonial stage. As Jane and Karin describes, is the period where the Africa trades is popularly in form of the barter system(Trade by barter). Here the transaction are made through what I regard as "exchange commodities." Because, financial transaction are always based on exchange of goods of which some were acquired or locally made and some were imported as a result their contact with neighboring countries and intercontinental trades. Example of commonly exchange commodities includes:


 although, it is not an indigenous based monetary currency as it was imported in to Africa( it is originated from Indian ocean) during the African contact with the Mediterranean world, where it was transported in through the west Africa from Maldives Island. Because, it is not easy to generate a counterfeit. owning to its successive responds of the cowries in many African states. It was first popular among the west Africa countries and also in the upper and middle Nigeria. It was also used in Mali Empire and later Timbuktu, Jene, Bambara city(16th century). Cowries later served as "shell money a slave trade money."


as popularly regarded as the only walking currencies of man as explained by Jane and Karin who assert that unlike other medium of exchange, the cattle is only the living and walking asset used in the early Africa for exchange of goods and payment of both bride price and payment of taxes.

minted metal

 of all the fastest and well developed Africa currencies, the minted metal enjoys an evolution of development. As it is still very much in  used even until today. However, it doesn't started well during the precolonial era as there were no adequate material to produced more currencies enough for distribution. some of this includes: minted copper manillas( bracelets),, iron bars, etc.


the kingdom of Axum could be said to be the earliest user of minted coins, which goes way back to about 6th to 8th C.E, it was later in the 8th C.E that the Swahili began minting their own coins.


were the oldest export commodities from African sphere of medium of exchange. They were used for international trade such as the Mediterranean, the Atlantic and Indian ocean trade. In addition , this was also used by old Ashanti kingdom(now Ghana) for almost everything.

Bars of salt

this was used along side cowries in the regional based trade. It is also used in exchange for gold and silvers

textile (fragmentary(bark cloth) in Buganda), Ensida beads, ivory pieces, glass beads, liquor, silver and other imported object made up the pre-colonial currencies

Another stage of the evolution  of Africa currencies is the colonial period. This period made up the most difficult but fruitful experience in Africa countries. Hence, the country experiences imposition of imperial rule over their already developing culture by the European. The colonial rule did not only imposed its rule on the Africans community, but also on its already expanding and developing currencies, where likes of cowries which has been the major currency in the west Africa, the gold in the west Africa and other part of continent, etc. the minted coins in the east Africa, and many more. As a result of this, most Africans a doesn't fully  welcome it joyfully especially the laborer, who after being paid in the foreign currency; they would converts it to  local coins. Nonetheless, this fight fall on the loosing edge due to lack if adequate materials such as copper for producing of more minted coins. More reasons for the failure of the pre-colonial currencies is the failure to maintain a unified exchange commodities within the territories because some of the territories has a different currency for regional transaction and another for intercontinental transaction. Therefore the need for the rationalization of currency and the colonial currency is viable and sufficient for the task.

 Consequently, the result of the domination colonial currencies have encouraged the introduction of important development to the African currency and they are as follows: the introduction of bank notes and receipt for payment on every transaction performed such as payment of taxes and other bills; the era also brought in the colonial currencies bearing their leaders images over as identity of symbols of authority over African. this spur the need for Africa to also introduced their leaders photographs on their currencies; and many more; lastly, the establishment financial institute, i.e. the Communaute Francaise Africaine (CFA), national banks for the British colonies, were found to oversea the financial control of money and creation of national currencies and banknotes. therefore by the end of the colonial stages there were already and well structured currencies, a good exchange rates and government agencies in charge of the creation of national currencies and banknotes.

 As its name suggested, Post-colonial stage, this is the period of evolution after the colonial stage. There was a remarkable shift in currencies in almost all African countries as Africans gained their independent from the colonial rules. Hence, this brought about the replacements of the African colonial currencies with their indigenous currencies, for instance: Ghana converted their currency from pounds sterling to cedi an indigenous Ghanaian given name for "cowry", South Africa has theirs as Rands, etc. It is worthy to note that as some people dropped their colonial master currency name some retain parts of it and this includes Kenya who has theirs as Kenya shillings, Central Africa Franc(CFA), East Africa Rupee, etc. Another change in the currencies is the establishment  of indigenous independent financial institute such as CBN in Nigeria to aid the production of currencies in the country. More to this remarkable evolution is the design on the bank notes; the nationalist and African leaders where featured in the currency note. and African culture were preached through the currencies( the Nigerian fifty naira and the new hundred naira- used for the celebration of a century anniversary, in Tanzania  it is UHURU(freedom) touch), etc.

 The current evolution phase of Africa currencies is birth, as a result of the advancement in technology and the advancement of the marketing worlds in general, it has moved from physical to the internet as there more shops online are now than the physical shops. similarly, as the online(digital)market is increasing developing radically, there is a need for  soft transaction of money where payment can be made through the internet rather than physical. Therefore, in an attempt to ease the transaction lots of online financial institutes, even physical banks shifted to the internet spaces and there are have birth of a lots crypto-currencies Dogecoins, Bitscoins, Ethereum, Tither, Pi and likes of others and more to come. And a rent statistic proves that Nigeria a west-state in Africa controls the larges share miners of Bitcoins crypto-currency.

 In summary, the constant condition of African currencies in general is changing as the worlds evolves. that is to say, the evolution is yet reach its apex, but rather is advancing each passing as period. since the number the internet user doesn't reduces and the numbers transactions doesn't decrease, there is every possibilities that the currencies won't reduced but rather gain weight and possesses greater quality.  Just as  Africa currencies has shifted from a pre-colonial "exchange-commodities" to the world of crypto currencies the Africa world won't without doubt fall behind neither.



A Historical Review of Slave Trade in Africa

A Historical Review of Slave Trade in Africa by Oluwaferanmi Olajide

African historiography has been considerably renewed during the past  three to four decades and despite the extreme diversity of internal sentiments pertaining to colonization, we still too often tend to generalize on just specific experience which is slave trade.

Colonization, an act of political and economic domination involving the control of a country and its people , it is also the action of settling among and establishing control over the indigenous people of the area . Colonization not colonisation (biology) is a multifaceted term which could be economical, social, political and other associated term. Colonization of black nations stems from the need of the white man to meet its internal economic imbalance, satisfy increasing demand for colonial goods such as tobacco , rum and sugar , and ensure constant labour which is mostly unwillingly ensured by slaves .

Slave trades out of Africa represent one of the most significant forced migration experiences in history as it provided political power , social standing and wealth for the Church , European nation _states , New World colonies and individuals. For over five centuries running from 1400 to 1900 , the slave trade encompassed four distinct waves which are : the trans_Saharan , Indian ocean , Red sea, and trans_ Atlantic slave trades. The last one was by  far the most significant in terms of volume and and duration for over 12 million Africans were embarked mostly along the coasts of west Africa and forced to undertake the middle passage across the Atlantic ocean where 25 percentage of the human cargo oblivious to the life ahead  would have been lost to starvation, jumping overboard, diseases and suffocation before getting to land . 

Although forced labour was not uncommon as Africans and Europeans had been trading goods and people across the Mediterranean for centuries but then enslavement had not been based on race but the trans_Atlantic slave trade which began as early as the 15th century introduced a system of slavery that was commercialized, racialized and inherited. Enslaved persons were not seen as people at all but as commodities to be bought, sold and exploited with the slave having no say whatsoever and denied right to even basic human rights down to their sexual partners as their master can do whatever he seem fit to them . These inhumane acts went on till  emancipation after centuries of slavery .

The Origin of Local African Health, Herbs and Medicines

Let's face it, medicine is as old as humans. The very act we as humans dwell on besides reproduction is surviving and without medicine, how can we survive?

African medicine is one of the oldest practices of medicine. from the Egyptians with embalmment to the local farmers with their herbs, one would like to believe that African medicine is the very foundation of basic modern medicine. African herbal medicine has a long history, and it was created to heal the physical, emotional, and spiritual reasons of numerous diseases that people face daily. African medicinal plants have been utilized successfully for generations.

The origin of African medicine is not truly known as it is believed that it was a trial and error practice. Plants being the main source for herbs, shelter, food and many more were heavily studied and their effects put to good use. some would say that the gods blessed the African people with their knowledge of plants and their uses. It was believed that the African herbs and medicines were not all about healing the body but also the mind and the spirit of a man and because of this many people had deemed it the practice of black arts or "juju". As a result, it was inescapable for this herbal medication to become connected with magical practices. As illness preventatives and cures, amulets and charms were far more common than pharmaceuticals. Diseases were deemed possessed by wicked spirits by the Priests, who were the forefathers of science and medicine, and could be cured with incantations and extracts from the roots of particular therapeutic herbs or plants. This historical custom is largely based on the psychosomatic system of curing diseases.

Many traditional African medicines are unquestionably effective in the treatment of sickness and the maintenance of good health. Some have even supplied many prescribed medications. However, there are obstacles. The fact that many consumers naturally assume "natural equals safe" is one of them. Another issue emerges when patients combine prescribed drugs with traditional or herbal therapies. Herbs and their mixtures are usually very secretive when being made. They're based on traditional healers' expertise passed down through the generations. This can lead to ambiguous dosing.

Even though modern medicine has flourished, traditional medicine is still being practised in many places, especially where they cannot afford the luxuries of modern medicine. In Nigeria alone, quite a number of people adhere to the life of traditional medicine, consuming mixtures of herbs daily, many of them fail to understand that despite the natural ingredients, there might be more harm than good. The most popular of the mixtures "Agbo Jedi Jedi"  dates back to old times used to cure a variety of things such as headaches, diarrhoea and so on.

Traditional medicine went far and wide when Africans were taken as slaves to America. It was used to treat the white men when they found themselves too poor to send for a physician or too weak to do so. It was later banned mostly because of fear that the African slaves would use their advanced knowledge of healing to overcome their masters. 

Fear does not kill history and origins, the ability to see only for the moment does.

        Africa , the "mother earth " is home to intricate heterogenous medicinal, herbal plant life and herein lies the magic in the traditional care system.  There is magic to be found in Africa but then it is quite unreal , merely a play on the human mind and consciousness as scientist theoretized,  but then past events , experiences and historiography has ascertained and brought home unyielding facts that there are worlds apart from ours , dimensions and planes within the universe yet uncharted and entities that are abstract to our world .

      Individuals , groups are on a quest into these worlds whose very existence is undeniable . There are mystery yet unknown , things unfounded and realms unexplored .

  As stated during creation in Genesis and throughout its texts , the earth produced vegetation , plants of varying kinds for Man's use for food , as civilization expanded so did his use and knowledge of roots and herbs . And as Man began to multiply and begat sons and daughters , so did their needs . 

    Thousands and hundreds of tribal cultures and civilization have used and cultivated herbs for medicinal and food purposes for several years and centuries and through trial and error were able to name , identify and differentiate these plants . 

Extensive research was carried out to ensure accurate answers and understanding of the botanical word , constant practices confirmed considerable results that could be trusted despite crude appliances and shallow information . 

      Furthermore , their uses with sufficient knowledge gained was preserved in writings and carvings which was passed down from one generation to another until this age and time . 


       In genesis of the Bible during creation established plants in varying kinds and diversity for Man's use and consumption . To be able to masterfully combine and blend these medicinal plants is an insightful work to behold . 

   Not to be labeled as an alternative or second choice to western medicine , African traditional medicine is the African indigenous health care system that has its origin in ancient cultures running from one end of the globe to the other . 

         It is safe to say herbal medicine serves as a cornerstone for traditional medicine which is viewed as application of knowledge and practice for diagnosing ,treating and enhancing individual life force and eliminating ailments and diseases . This certainty for treating and seeing results stems from past experiences and observations handed down from  generation to generation. 

      Practice makes perfect , but then there will be no change in the pattern if comprehension of underlying principle is absent and in many parts of Africa , orthodox method of health sector is widely accepted and sought after as it is an affordable and accessible health care.

    Applications of medicinal plants of African traditional health care is the oldest and most assorted principled of all therapeutic system as it make use of herbal medicinal plants to treat disease and enhance general health and well being  .

   Herbal medicine is an integral part of African traditional medicine as it is widely used in all societies and cultures of the world . Its significance within the framework and backbone of modern medicine should not be discarded  or overlooked as it serves as a stepping stone on which researches are made . 

      Although ,the data back up is not recorded until writing system is developed , these informations are passed down orally and through carvings to preserve history and ensure continuous functioning and availability.




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